This handbook provides basic guidance to all OSCE/ODIHR Election Observation Missions (EOM) on monitoring women’s participation in electoral processes. It has been developed as part of the ODIHR’s effort to enhance equality between women and men by mainstreaming gender issues into all areas of its work. The handbook sets out practical steps to be taken by each EOM to integrate a gender perspective into its work, supplementing the information in the ODIHR Election Observation Handbook and other materials prepared by the ODIHR. This handbook has been designed as a working tool. It should assist all EOMs in identifying and assessing the various elements that may impact on women’s equal political participation. The handbook has been structured to enable EOM members to focus quickly on the material most relevant to their specific responsibilities.