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The iKNOW Politics Team welcomes you to our Library! We have the strong commitment of making available, for free, relevant resources and publications related to the political empowerment of women and support women politicians, practitioners, academics, experts, and the general public alike. Currently we have more than 138 different resources, searchable below by keyword, type of resource and thematic. Interested in region or country-specific resources? Please visit our homepage and use our word map! Please send us your feedback and to connect@iknowpolitics.org. We hope you will enjoy the iKNOW Politics online library!

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Friday, November 10, 2017
Abstract Proportional electoral systems tend to be more beneficial for women's descriptive representation than majority systems. However, within proportional systems the gender equality of election outcomes differs, highlighting the importance of...
Thursday, October 19, 2017
Gender quotas aim to increase women’s parliamentary representation. However, the effectiveness of quotas varies. This article explores this issue further by examining the case of Poland, where gender quotas were introduced in 2011. The Polish case...
Thursday, October 19, 2017
Why are women still under-represented in politics? Can we speak of democracy when women are not fully included in political decision-making? Some argue that we are on the right track to full gender equality in politics, while others talk about women...
Thursday, August 10, 2017
This paper considers the emergence of women’s parties, their nature, and development in a comparative framework. Using an original dataset derived from European electoral commissions, statistical offices, national libraries, media archives, party...
Thursday, August 10, 2017
Women represent 20 percent of Congress, 25 percent of state legislature seats and 12 percent of governorships. They hold 24 percent of statewide elected offices, such as attorney general and lieutenant governor. While women have proven that they can...
Friday, April 28, 2017
The research presented in this paper provides useful insights into how increasing women’s descriptive representation within a legislature affects citizens’ interest and engagement in the political process, or their symbolic representation. Uruguay’s...
Financing for Gender Equality
Monday, April 10, 2017
This collection of essays addresses the glaring gap between policy commitments and actual investments in gender equality, ranging across sectors and focusing on development aid, peace-building and climate funds. Casting a spotlight on the...
Monday, March 27, 2017
In an effort to address the persistent gender gap at the highest levels of political office, this study investigates one of the stereotype-based social costs that women face as political candidates. Because power and power-seeking are central to the...
Friday, March 24, 2017
This book is an overview of women’s activism and political struggles in contemporary Africa, and the ways in which the continent's women are shaping the struggle for women’s rights internationally. Throughout Africa, growing numbers of women are...
Thursday, March 23, 2017
Quotas aren't anathema to meritocracy: they increase competence levels by displacing mediocre men, write Timothy Besley, Olle Folke, Torsten Persson and iKNOW Politics Expert Johanna Rickne in their paper. The abstract is provided below. Abstract...
Wednesday, March 08, 2017
iKNOW Politics expert Farida Jalalzai submitted the following article to be published on International Women’s Day 2017. Few social changes have been as dramatic and rapid as women’s increased political representation worldwide. Simultaneously,...
Wednesday, February 15, 2017
For women across the world, electoral politics can be a hostile and violent place. Women who stand for office can expect casual sexism and discrimination, ranging from snide remarks about their appearance to being propositioned by their male...
Tuesday, February 07, 2017
It is a well-established finding that proportional representation (PR) is associated with greater female legislative representation than single member majoritarian systems However, the degree to which different types of PR rules affect voting for...
uk
Wednesday, January 11, 2017
Gender quotas have emerged globally as a key solution for improving women's political representation. Yet in Britain—where they take the form of all-women shortlists (AWS)—they remain contentious, both within and outside political parties. In this...
Tuesday, July 12, 2016
Unexpected and transformative revolutions broke off in North Africa and quickly spread to the Middle East and the rest of the world in 2010 and 2011. Spontaneous, leaderless, youth-driven, and backed by social media, these revolutions called for...
Tuesday, June 07, 2016
Summary record of the Joint Biennial Meeting of the United Nations Inter-Agency Network on Women and Gender Equality (IANWGE) and the OECD-DAC Network on Gender Equality (GENDERNET) “Implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: A game...
Monday, June 06, 2016
This year, for the first time ever, two of the largest neuroscience societies are led by a female scientist: the Society for Neuroscience (SfN), with nearly 42,000 members, and the Federation of European Neuroscience Societies (FENS), which...
Tuesday, April 26, 2016
In the 2014 elections in Malawi, the incumbent female president Joyce Banda lost the presidency, and the number of women MPs was reduced from 43 to 33. This decline in women representation came despite opinion polls showing strong support for women’...
Tuesday, April 05, 2016
Abstract: Though more than 100 countries have adopted gender quotas, the effects of these reforms on women's political leadership are largely unknown. We exploit a natural experiment—a 50–50 quota imposed by the national board of the Swedish Social...
Friday, February 19, 2016
This factsheet, produced by Oxfam, gives a brief overview of the status of women in the Middle East and North Africa with a focus on the themes of violence against women and girls in conflict and women’s political participation and leadership. It...
Tuesday, February 16, 2016
The Arab region ranks the lowest in the world in terms of women‘s participation in parliaments. Recognizing the power of the challenges facing women in politics, this paper examines the political participation of women in the Arab countries and...
Tuesday, February 09, 2016
Gender mainstreaming and gender budgeting are fixtures of the debates and documents of the international women’s movement. Politically active women all over the world have developed gender mainstreaming as a strategy to enable them to emerge from...
Friday, January 15, 2016
Written by Miriam Kelberg and originally published here on December 11, 2015.  It’s no secret that throughout the world, women have been historically underrepresented in politics. Even today, there are 37 countries where women hold less than 10...
Friday, January 15, 2016
Written by Louise Bosetti and Hannah Cooper. This article was originally published on November 17, 2016 by the United Nations University's Centre for Policy Research here.   2015 is a ‘year of action’ at the UN in several regards. This summer...
Thursday, January 14, 2016
National action plans (NAPs) are one of the key strategies for realizing the objectives of UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325. Despite increased emphasis on the importance of NAPs in recent years, major challenges remain. NAPs are typically...
Thursday, January 14, 2016
Torild Skard's recent book, Women of Power, has just been awarded the Outstanding Academic Title for 2015 by CHOICE, the US Library journal. The author is the former first woman President of the Norwegian Upper House, former Director of the Status...
Wednesday, December 02, 2015
The Global Parliamentary Conference (GPC) is the Parliamentary Network’s flagship event co-organised by the Parliamentary Network on the World Bank & IMF (PN), World Bank Group (WBG), and International Monetary Fund (IMF), providing...
Friday, November 20, 2015
Traditional approaches to ending wars—where armed groups meet behind closed doors to hammer out a truce—are falling short in the face of 21st century conflicts. The number of armed conflicts has been increasing over the past decade. In 2014 the...
Tuesday, November 17, 2015
Fifteen years after the adoption of Security Council resolution 1325 on women and peace and security, Iraqi women and girls are being displaced, abducted, enslaved and made victims of sexual and physical violence as a result of the escalating...
Women in Politics 2015 Map
Friday, March 13, 2015
The Map, which presents latest data and global rankings for women in politics, reveals a mixed picture on gender equality in executive government and in parliament at regional and national levels.  
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, president of Liberia
Tuesday, March 10, 2015
How much progress are women really making as public leaders? We’ve gleaned the statistics to find out where women are getting to the top, as both public officials and parliamentarians. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union, as of 1 January 2015...
Thursday, October 23, 2014
Women have traditionally been marginalised from the structures of state that determine political and legislative  priorities. In recent years, Africa has witnessed rapid escalation in female political representation. This paper  illustrates the...
Afghanistan women vote
Wednesday, October 22, 2014
Public support for the war in Afghanistan began to wane in 2009 in the United States and even earlier in NATO countries. It was based on war weariness, the cost in money and lives, and the perception that the war had not been worth fighting, the...
Monday, August 18, 2014
2011 was the year where Tunisian history suddenly witnessed a significant turnout by the outbreak of the popular uprising in Tunisia causing the fall of the authoritarian regime. That revolutionary movement led to free elections of the National...
Thursday, July 17, 2014
The rising influence of new information and communication technologies (ICTs) has paralleled the rapid development of women’s political participation worldwide. For women entering political life or holding public positions, new ICTs are frequently...
Tuesday, June 10, 2014
Tunisia’s National Constituent Assembly (NCA) session held on 26 January 2014 did not put an end to disagreements among its members. However, it did represent the culmination of the work done by members. These members were elected by people on 23...
Thursday, May 22, 2014
Voters in all 28 member states of the European Union (EU) will go to the polls May 22–25, 2014, to elect representatives to the 751-seat European Parliament. It’s one of the largest democratic events in the world, and the upcoming vote is set to be...
Thursday, May 08, 2014
Women activists say they won a major step forward with Egypt's new constitution, which enshrined greater rights for women. But months after its passage, they're worrying whether those rights will be implemented or will turn out to be merely ink on...
Thursday, May 01, 2014
  The World Bank’s World Development Report on Gender Equality and Development (WDR2012) identified women’s voice, agency and participation as a key dimension of gender equality and as a major policy priority. Agency, as defined in the WDR2012, is...
Wednesday, April 30, 2014
Although perceived changes in political participation patterns amongst young people in recent years have attracted much academic research in established democracies this remains an understudied area in the newer post-communist democracies of Central...

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