An overwhelming majority of women MPs have received online and verbal abuse from the public and a third have considered quitting as a result, a BBC Radio 5 live survey suggests.
Some reported death threats, with more than half of those questioned saying they had had physical threats.
More than a third of the UK's 195 female MPs took part in the research.
Of these, two thirds said they felt "less safe" following the murder of the Labour MP Jo Cox last summer.
Deputy Commons Speaker Lindsay Hoyle said Parliament was working with police to ensure MPs' safety and offer training to enhance their security while away from Westminster.